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Lesson of Kikongo

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1

Lesson of Kikongo

Dilongi ditatu
1. Gunu kilumbu ki mvutuka driven nzo kandu. Kansi ludi one nzo-ka nda uyidi driven carry out-carries out. Bungangi masa my mvula subdued kota driven kati ki nzo-kanda.
2. Bungangi mvwidi ngolo driven kwenda driven nzo-n kanda, driven diambu ndidi.
3. Ku gata di tata leki ntukidi; Mabibi masakidi driven diambu nzila inda nsadidi. Driven tata sumbidi ngombe driven diambu di nkwe it I tata carry out-carries out leki.
4. E mama, yaya Leoni ye nkwesi Fidi balutidi ku zandu; bavingidi tata, kansi basukidi mbundu.
5. Gunu ki nima midday diambu di kiadi tuwidi: mfumu gata driven boloko kena.
6. Mama muna nzo driven kena; madia kata lamba. Kansi luku kaka kata lamba Mono mbisi ita lamba. Mungu utwi-di driven mbisi.
7. Kuna nzo mfumu gata muntu fwidi kûna.
8. Zitu Dominiki sidi ku nzo tata Mandeleni.
9. Nkasi Lufonsi lutidi ku nzo tata Labe Yosefo.
10. Driven ntangu nzo-kanda I carry out-does not carry out, Daniel bakidi ndola inene driven diambu di kugoga.
Third lesson
1. Today, it is the day of the re-entry at the school. But the roof of the school has just flamed this morning. Maintaining rainwater penetrates inside the class.
2. Now, I have force to go to the school, because I ate.
3. I come from the village (of small the father) of the paternal uncle; I am very tired because I made a long way. This morning, dad bought a cow for the marriage of the paternal uncle.
4. Mama, my Léonie sister and the Philippe brother-in-law went to the market; they awaited dad, but they were impatientés.
5. Today, in the afternoon, we learned a sad news: the chief of the village east in prison.
6. Mom is in the house; she is preparing food. But it prepares only the luku. Me I prepare the meat. Salt is sufficient in the meat.
7. In the house of the chief of village, a man died is there.
8. The father-in-law (or son-in-law) of Domenica remained in aunt Madeleine.
9. The maternal uncle Alphonse passed to Mister the Joseph Abbot.
10. During (the time of) the class of the morning, Daniel has (received) a great punishment (because of speaking) because it spoke.
Vocabulary:
Gunu: today
Mvutuka: the re-entry, the return
Nzo-kanda: the school, the class (house of books)
Yoka (tr): to burn
Bungangi: now
Mvula: rain
Mvwidi of vwa: to have
Mu: for (mark the goal of)
Mu diambu: because of, because
Kilumbu: the day
Vutuka: to turn over, return
Uyidi of (ku) ya: to burn, flame
Mene: the morning
Mene-mene: the morning
masa: water
kota: to enter, penetrate
ngolo: the force (employed in the plural)
kwenda: to go
diambu: news, business
Ku: mark the origin here; it can also mark the direction
tata kento: paternal aunt (father female)
Mabibi: tire
nzila: way, means
sumba: to buy
E: to introduce the apostrophe
nkwesi: brother-in-law or sister-in-law
zandu: market
Suka (intransitive): to finish, completed
Suka mbundu: impatienter
Nima: the back
Nima midday: afternoon
Wa: to hear
Wa nsudi, nsunga: to feel good, a bad smell
Luku: bread of manioc
Lamba: to prepare
Mungu: salt
Kûna (long): there
zitu: father-in-law or mother-in-law
tata Mandeleni: aunt Madeleine (sister of dad)
Ntangu: time (lasted); show; sun
Kugoga: to speak (as a substantive)
Sa: to put (past R: nsidi, sidi)
Mono: me
Vila: to lose itself
Zuba: to strike
Beto kulu: us all
Longi: monitor, Master
Kaka: other (adj. Indefinite)
Louse: ground, ground, sphere, terrestrial
Yani: he (personal pronoun 3rd sea-green. Sing.)
Dila: to cry
Futa: to pay
Futa siku: to pay a fine
Mona: to see
Mona kiadi, kiese, kikitu, kiosi, kiungila: to be sad, merry, to be afraid, cold, heat
Tata leki: the young father. At Bakongo, all the brothers and sisters of the father are “fathers” (paternal uncle)
Saka: to exceed, exceed (intransitive)
- nda: length
Nkwela: the marriage
Kwela: to marry, marry
Yaya: brother, sister
Luta: to pass, cross
Vingila: to wait
Mbundu: heart
Kiadi: sadness
Mfumu gata: the chief of the village
Boloko: block, prison
Madia: lanourriture
Kata lamba: cfr grammar
Kaka: only
Kâka: burst of laughter
Twa: salt, corrosive pepper, put just; slap actually applied
Sidi of sâla: to remain
Nkasi: uncle (brother of the mother)
Baka: to take, deserve
Baka ndola: to deserve a punishment, to have a punishment
Lola: to punish
Salted: to work (of its is short)
Kisalu: work
Sadi: the worker, the workman
Ndenga: holidays, the voyage, the walk
Tata longi: Mister the monitor (Tata also gets busy to mark the respect)
Nsaka (plural): plays (without singular)
Sakana: to play
Fufuka: to be pressed; to press itself (intransitive)
Nkokila: the evening
Funda: to show
Siku: law, payment, defense, amend
Ngangu: intelligence
Baka ngangu: to become intelligent, malignant, here, to be informed, to learn the lesson from an unhappy situation
Baka bumolo: to become lazy
Nitu ibakidi bumolo: the body took idleness = I am tired
I became lazy
Grammar:
1. In Kikongo, all the verbs end in - has and have Ku like prefix.
2. Instead of the present, Bakongo often employ the form of the recent past (past of today), but this time goes in French, either by the present, or in the past simple, or in the past indefinite, or
finally by the imperfect one.
3. In the conjugation, we classify the verbs according to their number of syllables and their penultimate vowel.
4. Present of verb KALA: to be.
We already saw that this verb borrows its present from a defective verb (- INA), employed only at the present.
Note:
Prefixes of agreement of the verbs:
Ngina: I am ................. I (or NR): for the past of today 1st sea-green. Sing.
Una: you are ..................... U: 2nd sea-green. Sing.
Kena: it is .................... Ka: 3rd sea-green. Sing. (all other prefixes required by the subject)
Tuna: we are ......... You: 1st sea-green. Plur.
Luna: you are .............. Lu: 2nd sea-green. Plur.
Bena: they are ................. Ba: 3rd sea-green. Plur. (only for the people)
We have also the equivalent of the accentuated personal pronoun.
Mono, Nge or Ngeye, Beto, Beno, Beam.
All these forms can have as a subject only one person or a personified thing.
5. Passed today of Dia: to eat.
Ndidi
Ndidi (Ndiidi) your amount on the last vowel
Didi (Diidi)
Didi (Diidi) your top on the first I and low on the two last
Tudidi (Tudiidi) to see 1st sea-green. Sing.
Ludidi (Ludiidi)
Badidi (Badiidi) even the 3rd sea-green one. Sing.
Note that: - 2nd and the 3rd sea-green one. Sing. Are characterized by the tone
- these people do not have their prefix of agreement.
6. Regulate
To form the past of today verb DIA
has) One removes A final
b) Termination IDI is added (both I amalgamate and become î long)
7. Form their recent past like verb DIA
has) Monosyllabic verbs not containing neither M, nor NR.
b) The verbs disyllabic whose penultimate vowel is I or U, and whose no syllable is formed by a M or NR simple (i.e. + V)
+ Some verbs disyllabic whose penultimate vowel has short.
(ex: salted, bata)
c) the polysyllabic verbs of which all the vowels, except the last, are U, and whose last consonant is K.
N.B. The verbs of these categories which contain a vowel formed by a M or NR simple (i.e. Followed directly vowel) form their recent past in INI.
Also verbs disyllabic finished in AMA, INA.
Note:
Baka: to take, seize
Bâka: to destroy form also their past in IDI
Kaba: to give a gift
Retain that L in front of I becomes D.
Some verbs which form their recent past in “IDI” or “INI”
Baka .................. Mbakidi ............ Bakidi ............... To take, seize
Bidika ................ Mbidikidi ........... Bidikidi .............. To make abound
Bînga ................. Mbîngidi ............ Bîngidi ............... To make a fire
.................... Mbingidi ........... Bitidi ................. Saisir fucked while surrounding
Budika ............... Mbitidi ............... Budikiti ............ = to break
Buka .................. Mbukidi ............. Bukidi .............. To look after
Bula ................... Mbulidi .............. Budidi ............. To break, strike
.................. Mbutidi .............. Butidi ............... Engendrer butted
Bwa .................. Mbwidi ............... Bwidi ............... To fall
Dia .................... Ndîdi ................. Didi .................. To eat
Dîka ................... Ndikidi ............. Dikidi ................ To nourish
+ Dila ................ Ndididi .............. Dididi ................ To cry
Fika ................... Mfikidi .............. Fikidi ................ To cover
Finga ................. Mfingidi ............. Fingidi .............. To insult
Fiya ................... Mfiyidi .............. Fiyidi ................ To suck
+ Fula ................ Mfudidi ............. Fudidi ............... To blow
Fûla .................... Mfudidi ............ Fudidi ............... To continue
Fuluka ................. Mfulukidi ......... Fulukidi ............ To be filled
Funda ................. Mfundidi ........... Fundidi ............. To show
+ Futumuka ....... Mfutumukini ....... Futumukini ...... Ressusciter
Fwa ................... Mfwidi ............... Fwidi ............... To die
Fwaka ................ Mfwakidi ........... Fwakidi ........... To throw (water)
Guluka ............... Ngulukidi .......... Gulukidi ........... To be saved
+ Guma ............. Ngumini ........... Gumini ............. To throw (water)
+ Guna ............... Ngunini ............ Gunini ............. To mislead
Kaba ................... Nkabidi ............ Kabidi ............. To make a gift
Kiatika ................ Nkiatikidi .......... Kiatikidi ......... To arrange
+ Kina ................ Nkinini .............. Kinini ............. To dance
Kinda ................. Nkindidi ............. Kindidi ........... To be cured
Kîka ................... Nkididi .............. Kididi ............. To cover
Kingila ................ Nkingidi ............ Kingidi ............ To wait
Kita .................... Nkitidi .............. Kitidi .............. To make the trade
Kituka ................ Nkitukidi ............ Kitukidi .......... To become
Kuba .................. Nkubidi ............. Kubidi ............ To age
+ Kula ................ Nkudidi ............. Kudidi ............ To drive out
+ Kumuluka ........ Nkulumikini ....... Kulumikini ...... To go down
+ Kuma ............. Nkumini ............ Kumini ........... To arrive
+ Kuna ............... Nkunini ............ Kunini ............ To plant
Kusa .................. Nkusidi ............. Kusidi ........... Oindre
Kutika ................ Nkutikidi ........... Kutikidi .......... To gather
Kutuka ............... Nkutukidi .......... Kutukidi ......... To be untied
+ Luka ............... Ndukidi ............. Lukidi ............. To vomit
+ Lunda ............. Ndundidi ............ Lundidi .......... To preserve
+ ................ Ndutidi .............. Lutidi ............. Passer Luted
+ ............... Nbinini .............. Minini ............ Avaler Mined
+ Nika ............... Ndikini ............... Nikini ............. To polish
+ Nwa ............... Ndwini ............... Nwini ............. To drink
+ Nwika ............ Ndwikini ............. Nwikini .......... To make drink
+ Pamuka ......... Mpamukini ......... Pamukini ....... To jump
Pupa ................. Mpudidi ............. Pupidi ........... To blow
.................. Nsadidi ............. Sadidi ........... Travailler salted
Sâla .................. Nsîdi ................ Sîdi ............... To remain
Sika .................. Nsikidi .............. Sikidi ............ To draw a blow from rifle,
.................................................. ....................... To play of the music
Sindika ............. Nsindikidi ......... Sindikidi ......... To send
Sîsa ................. Nsisidi .............. Sisidi ............. To leave
+ Sukinina ........ Nsukinini .......... Late Sukinini ......... To be
+ Sungimina ..... Nsungimini ........ Sungimini ...... To remember
+ Catholic student .............. Ntadidi .............. Tadidi ............ To look at
Tambika ........... Ntambikidi ......... Tambiki .......... To present
+ Tina .............. Ntinini ............... Tinini ............. To flee, avoid
Tita .................. Ntitidi ............... Titidi ............. To fear
Tûka ................ Ntukidi .............. Tukidi ............ To leave
+ Tuma ............ Ntumini ............. Tumini ............ To send, order
Tunga ............... Ntungidi ............ Tungidi .......... To build
Vika ................. Nvikidi ............... Vikidi ............ To equip
+ Vila ............... Mvididi .............. Vididi ............. To be lost
Vimba .............. Mvimbidi ............ Vimbidi .......... To inflate
Vitika ............... Mvitikidi ............. Vitikidi ........... To incline
+ Wa ............... Ngwidi .............. Widi .............. To hear
+ Ya ................ Ngyidi ............... Yidi ............... To flame
+ Yambila ........ Ngyiambidi ........ Yambidi .......... To converse
+ Yanika .......... Ngyianikini ........ Yaniki ............. To put at the sun
+ Yangilika ....... Ngyiangidikidi…. Yangidikidi ....... To delight
+ Yaguka ......... Ngyiagukidi ........ Yagukidi ......... To be tepid
+ Yiba .............. Ngyibidi ............. Yibidi ............. To fly
+ Yita ............... Ngyitidi .............. Yitidi ............. To precede
+ Yuma ........... Ngyiumini ........... Yumini ........... To dry
+ Yunsa ........... Ngyunsidi ........... Yunsidi .......... To test
Zika ................. Nzikidi ................ Zikidi ............. To bury
+ Zima ............. Nzimini ............... Zimini ............ To extinguish
Zuba ................ Nzubidi .............. Zubidi ............ To strike
Note:
In the conjugation of the verbs:
1° M + M = MB
2° NR + NR = ND
NR + L = ND
3° NR + W = NGW
4° NR + Y = NGYU
Exercises:
Put at the recent past the verbs between the brackets. Find the prefix required by the substantive.
1. Driven nsusu tata carry out-carries out (- dia) luku read mfumu gata.
2. Gunu Landu kisalu - mbote ye - tit (salted), mono mpi kisalu kifwana (salted).
3. Mono (its) mungu driven madia; Dioni (suka) mbundu ye wele driven ngansi.
4. Ngombe - nkasi Piedi (vila) gunu driven carry out-carries out.
5. Yaya Yosefo (sumba) nkombo - mbote - mbote ye - tit.
6. Mbwa mfumu gata (luted) ku wela; driven ntangu mvutuka (bwa) muna bulu dinda ye (fwa).
7. Driven - mbumba carries out - tata carries out leki (tuka) ku nzila ye (vila).
8. Ku gata - kanda - tata nzo (ya) kûna gunu driven midday?
9. Matoko (baka) ndola driven ntangu nzo - kanda - nkokila.
10. Mama (sâla) ku gata di nkasi Misiedi.
11. Kilumbu - gunu - mbote (Kala: at the present indicative)
Note:
The names starting out of LU take LU like prefixes agreement.
Nzo - kanda
Mono driven nzo - kanda ngina; Sports shirt driven nzo - kanda kena; Mono ye Polo driven nzo - kanda tuna. Nge Piedi driven nzo - kanda una; Zundi mpi driven nzo - kanda kena; Nge Piedi ye Zudi driven nzo - kanda lunda. Yaya Fidi ye yaya Andre driven kisalu bena.
Gunu ndenga isukidi; beto kulu tuvutukidi driven nzo - kanda ye tuyantikidi kala driven kulonguka. Kansi tata longi ku lupitalu kena, longi kaka tuvwidi bungangi; zina divididi.
Driven midday driven ntangu nsaka, Simoni ye Him babwidi ga louse. Beto butumwene buna kititu kibakidi. Kansi Him kaka fufukidi kulu. Tata longi zubidi Sports shirt mbata mudiambu yani bwisidi Simoni ye Him. Sports shirt mpi dididi ntangu me vimba. Ku nima nzo - kanda I nkokila, Simoni ye Him bafundidi Sports shirt ku mfumu gata. Di Polo futidi siku unene. Bungangi Sports shirt kiadi kata mona, kadi diambu kasadidi driven midday driven ntangu nsaka dimbi. Beto mpi tusidi tubakidi ngangu.
Vocabulary:
Mungu: salt
Its mungu: to put salt, to season
Ngombe: cow or ox
Bulu: hole
Nzila: way
Ku nzila: outside
Ndenga: walk, excursion, holidays
Suka = manisa: to finish, completed (intransitive)
example:
Kisalu kisukidi
Vwa = kala ye: to have
Bwisa: to make fall, drop
Bungangi: now
Kiadi kata mona: it is sad (literally: it sees sadness)
Kadi = driven diambu = kikume nde: because

2

LESSONS OF KIKONGO BY BAKONGO
Dilongi dintete
1. Piedi muntu (mwana yakala)
2. Maria muntu (mwana kento)
3. Masamba mwana Piedi ye mwana Maria
4. Nsona mpangi Masamba
5. Piedi di Masamba ye di Nsona
6. Maria ngudi Masamba ye Nsona
7. Piedi ye Maria tata ye mama U Masamba ye Nsona.
8. Bobi mbwa
9. Mbwa mbisi, nkayi mbisi.
10. Mbwa kitiwisi, nkayi mbisi mfinda.
First lesson
1. Pierre is a man.
2. Marie is a man (a woman).
3. Masamba is wire of Pierre and Marie.
4. Nsona is brother (or sister of) Masamba.
5. Pierre is the father of Masamba and Nsona.
6. Marie is the mother of Masamba and Nsona.
7. Pierre and Marie are (the father and the mother) the parents of Masamba and Nsona.
8. Bobi is a dog.
9. The dog is an animal, the antelope is an animal.
10. The dog is a domestic animal, the antelope is a wild beast.
Vocabulary:
Muntu (generic name): man, human being
Mwana yakala: male human being (“A” of the mwa is short)
Mwâna yakala: a boy (“A” of the mwa is long)
Mwana kento: female human being (same remarks as in the preceding case)
Mwâna: child (boy or girl) (“A” of the mwa is long)
Mwanambwa, mwana nsusu, mwana nkombo: a puppy, a small hen, a small goat. “A” of mwa in all these cases is short. Mwana marks simply smallness. If “A” of mwa of lengthened, it will be necessary to translate then: small of
Ye: conjunction meaning: and, with
Mpangi: brother, sister, cousin, cousin
Mpangi kento: sister
Mpangi yakala: brother
: father (within the meaning of “father of…”)
Tata: father
Ngudi: mother (within the meaning of “mother of…”)
Mama: mother, mom
Di: agreement prefixes which marks a relation of dependence here: “of”
Mbwa: dog
Mbwa nkento: dog female
Mbwa koko: male dog
Note:
Note that mwana kento and mbwa nkento, nkento which determines the sex, is written with a NR syllabic or a NR simple according to whether it means human being or an animal. To indicate the male sex, one employs yakala for the human ones, and koko for the animals. The “O” of the first KB is short.
Mbisi: animal (it also means “meat” and all that accompanies the bread)
Kitwisi: domestic animal
Grammar
Attribute: To connect the attribute to the subject, the verb being in Kikongo is often implied. It is the case in all the sentences of the lesson.
Relations of dependence: To express the idea of membership, (the determinative complement), the prefixes of agreement are employed, but often, these prefixes are removed; thus, in the third sentence of the lesson for example, Mwana Piedi is in the place of mwana U Piedi. In sentences 4, 3, we have of the same phenomenon.
Text exercise:
Nsusu tata, nsusu mwana
Kiese ki tata sharp ki mwana
Nkombo mbuta kanda, nkombo mwana nkasi.
Lesson of Kikongo
Dilongi dizole
1. Mukongo mwesi nsi Kongo.
2. Kongo zina di nsi, Léo zina di nbamsa; kiyanika zina di gata.
3. Kikongo ndinga I Bakongo.
4. Bakongo kanda di nsi Kongo, ga kati ki nsi Kama (Afrika).
5. Kulonguka kikongo ye kugoga kikongo kima kimbote.
6. Kento Piedi uma muna nzo. Kento Piedi muna nzo driven kena.
7. Gata dina muna mbela mfinda.
8. Kielo kina ndambu nzo nela, ina ndambu nzo, kibaka kina ndambu nzo, ludi una ndambu nzo.
9. Nkombo kitwisi bonso mbwa, bonso mbumba.
10. Nsusu koko driven kifwalansi “a cock”.
11. Nsusu nkento driven kifwalansi “a hen”.
Second lesson
1. Mukongo (is) Congolese (inhabitant of Congo).
2. Congo is a name of country; Léo is a name of city; kiyanika is a name of village.
3. Kikongo is the language of Bakongo.
4. Bakongo (constitute) a tribe of Congo, in the center of Kama (Africa).
5. To learn the kikongo and to speak the kikongo (is) a good thing.
6. It is the woman of Pierre who is in the house. The woman of Pierre is in the house.
7. There is a village close to the forest. Or the village is close to the forest.
8. The door is part of the house, the window is part of the house, the wall is part of the house, the roof is part of the house.
9. The goat is a domestic animal like the dog, like the cat.
10. A male hen (is translated) in French “a cock”.
11. A female hen says in French “a hen”.
Vocabulary:
Mwesi or mwisi: inhabitant of, originating in
Mbansa: city
You mbansa: the capital
kanda: tribe, clan, kind (in grammar)
Kanda di kiyakala: male kind
Kanda di kikento: female kind
Nsusu: hen (general)
Grammar:
The kikongo is a language with prefixes. The agreements between the various parts of speech are done by prefixes. The names group according to their prefixes, but this theory will be explained in the following lessons. Let us retain for the moment the following remarks:
Names starting with:
has) KI have like prefixes agreement in the singular, KI
example:
Kima kimbote, kielo kina, kibaka kina
b) KA, KE, G, Z require prefix DI in the singular
example:
Kanda di nsi, gata dina, zina di nsi
c) M, NR require I in the singular
example:
Nela I nzo, ndinga I Bakongo
M or NR syllabic want U in the singular.
example:
Ludi U nzo, kento U Piedi.
Note:
Kati enters the b) but the phrase “ga kati” (or “driven kati”) wants KI
Muna: in, influences of them the prefixes which follow
example:
Muna nzo mbumba mbote ina muna I Masamba
(In the house, there is the beautiful cat of Masamba)
As note while passing as forms DINA, UNA, KINA, UNA, are all of the third nobody of the singular; of a disappeared verb (INA), meaning to be, verb which, undoubtedly, would be employed only at the present indicative.
Exercise:
To find the prefix asked by the words preceded by an indent
1. Nsi Kongo - tit ye - mbote
2. Nzo - tata Makengo driven mbela mfinda - Na
3. Ludi - nzo - tata Andre - mbote - Na, kansi kielo - nzo - ndwelo - Na
4. Mbumba yi Na muna nzo Kabwiku - mbote - Na
E Kikongo nding I mbote I bakongo
Kulonguka kikongo kima kimbote, kansi kikongo mpasi kina
Kansi kudia mpi mpasi kuna
Lusolo kima kinene driven luzingu